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The Turkish Military left behind by changing times

Military Turkish Military Tennyson's Militaries 2003

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#1 tennyson

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Posted 26 May 2003 - 10:24 AM

Turkey has so many security concerns and international involvements that I will detail them in a seperate post, so without further ado the Turkish Army.
The present Turkish Army strength is 498,000, with some 380,000 personnel available for combat duty. The Turkish Army was for many years at the forefront of NATO's defensive posture in this region, positioned to hold its ground against an expected Warsaw Pact invasion until reinforcements could arrive from other Allied forces. This lead to a heavily armed, rather immobile, and largely obselete force which Turkey is now making strenous efforts to modernize, even to the point of considering an Israeli program for upgrades on its fleet of M60 tanks along with other modern armoured vehicles. In fact, the militaries of Turkey and Israel have a suprisingly close relationship that has included technology transfer and upgrades to Turkish equipment.

The present organization is divided into four Army regions which are further divided into  9 Corps headquarters that operate between them
14 independent armoured brigades
1 mechanized division
1 mechanized infantry division(headquarters only, no combat units permanently attached)
1 infantry division
17 mechanized infantry divisions9 infantry brigades
4 commando brigades
1 infantry regiment
5 border defence regiments
26 border defence battalions
1 Presidental Guard Regiment

These units are equipped with
962 M60A1/A3 main battle tanks
397 Leopard 1 main battle tanks
2876 M48A5 main battle tanks( to those not in the know these are upgrades of a tank built in the 1950s)
110 Akrep and Cobra light armoured reconnaissance vehicles
1400 FMC/Nurol armoured personnel carriers(  modified M113 with extra armour ad a 20mm cannon turrent)
2850 M113 APCs
219 M110 A2 203mm Self-propelled howitzers
36 M107 175mm SP guns
222 M44T 155mm sp howitzers( 1950s vintage)
26 M108T 105mm sp howitzers
365 M52T 105mm sp howitzers( also 1950s vintage)
12 227mm MLRS SP multiple rocket launchers
48 107mm LARS sp rocket launchers
162 M115 203mm towed guns
517 M114 155mm towed howitzers
600 M101 105mm towed guns
757 120mm mortors(including 180 in armoured personnel carriers)
1264 107mm mortors
3790 81mm mortors
2300 M40A1 106mm recoilles rifles
620 75mm recoilles rifles
900 M18 57mm recoilles irifles
180 Cobra antitank missile launchers
360 TOW missile launchers on armoured carriers
392 Milan antitank missile launchers
500 Redeye manportable SAM launchers
120 Stinger manportable SAM launchers
262 M42A1 Duster twin 40mm self-propeeled antiaircraft guns
40 T1 towed air defence
803 40mm L60/L70 towed AA guns
120 35mm GDF towed AA guns
439 20mm GAI-DOI towed AA guns

Army Aviation fields a large force of aircraft, primarilly helicopters that includes,
12 Agusta AB.204B  transport heicopters
1Agusta AB.206A  and 26 Agusta AB.206R transport helicopters
3Agusta AB.212  Utility/VIP Transport helicopters
20 AS.532UL Cougar helicopters for  Utility/VIP Trans/Medevac with a further 10 ordered for Combat Search and Rescue
9 Bell AH-1W attack helicopters
36Bell AH-1P/S/TAH-1P attack helicopters
3 Bell OH-58B helicopters for observation
1 Bell 206L-4 for observation work
155 Bell UH-1H/AB.205A  transport helicopters
26 Hughes 269C for Basic Training
59 S-70A-28 Black Hawk transport helicopters with another 35 on order
4 Beech T-42A Cochise  Trans./Trainer aircraft
4 Beech Super King Air 200  VIP Transport aircraft
4 Cessna 421B/C  VIP Transports
30Cessna U-17B observation and training aircraft
24 Cessna T-41D basic training aircraft
2 Dornier Do 28D-2  ELINT aircraft
"Only an idiot would fight a war on two fronts. Only the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Idiots would fight a war on twelve fronts."

— Londo, "Ceremonies of Light and Dark" Babylon-5


#2 tennyson

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Posted 26 May 2003 - 11:46 AM

The Turkish Navy has many of the sae problems asthe Army but like the Air Force these problems are much closer to being solved due to the greater share of modernization funds devoted to the Navy.
The Turkish Navy had(2000) 51,000 personnel including 900 naval aviation and 3000 marines. There is a 70,000 man naval reserve.
It is equipped with
6 EX-US Oliver Hazard Perry class guided missile frigates
4 MEKO200TN(upgraded MEKO200) and 4 MEKO 200 class guided missile frigates
8 ex-US Knox class ASW frigates
2 Berk class frigates(ex-US Claud Jones class frigates with little modernization)
4 + 4 building German Type 209/1400 class diseal-electric attack submarines
6 German Type 209/1200 class diseal-electric attack submarines
there are also 2 ex-US Tang and 3ex-US GUPPY IIA class diseal-electric attack submarines but these are so old that thier serviceability is questionable and they may only be used for training or battery charging.
5Kilic class guided missile patrol craft with 8 Harppon antiship missiles each.
2 modified German FPB57 class guided missile patrol craft with 8 Harpoon missiles each
8 German FPB 57 class guided missile patrol craft with 2-4 Harpoon missiles each
8 Kartal class guided missile patrol boats with 4 Penguin antiship missiles each
1 German PB 57 class patrol craft
1 ex-US Asheville class patrol craft
4 ex-US PGM 71 class patrol craft
another 19 patrol craft and 4 ex-US Coast Guard 83foot patrol boats
1 Osman Gazi class minelayer/landing ship(can carry either 200 mines or 900 troops and 15 tanks with 4 landing craft)
2 Sarucabey class minelayer/landing ships( can carry 150 mines or 11 tanks, 12 trucks and 600 troops and two landing craft each)
1 Cakabey class minelayer/landing ship(can carry 150 mines or400 troops, 9 M48 tanks, 10 jeeps and 2 landing craft)
1 Danish Falster class minelayer
2 ex-German, ex-US LST 542 class minelayer/tank landing ships(very old, may be unserviceable)
3 German Type 332 coastal minehunters
5 ex-French Circe class coastal minehunters
3 ex-German French Mercure class coastal minesweepers
9 ex-US coastal minesweepers and 4 ex-US inshore mineweepers
2 ex-US Terreborne Parish class landing ship tanks(LST)s( can carry 2200 tons of cargo each and 4 LCVPS)
26 ultility landing craft
20 LCM8 class medium landing craft
1 Akar and 1 modified Akar class replenishment oiler
3 transport oilers
2 ex-German Rhein class training ships
The Turkish Navy also operates a large force of survey ships, harbor patrol, tenders, tugs, slavgae and subamarine rescue ships, floating dry docks and other auxilary ships

The Turkish Marine Corps has three combat infantry battalions, one artillery battalion, a headquarters company and varuous support units.
Turkish naval aviation is equipped with
3 Agusta AB.204AS helicopters for  SAR/Transport
10 Agusta AB.212ASW helicoptersfor antisubmarine warfare and search and rescue
3 Agusta AB.212EW helicopters for EW
8 Sikorsky SH-60B Seahawk ASW helicopters are being delivered
6 CN.235M  Maritime Patrol  aircraft are being delivered
8SOCATA TB20 Trinidad Comms/Training aircraft
Four Sikorsky CH-60B (MCH-60S) are on order for utility transport duties.
Another 8 SH-60B have been ordered, to bring the total to 16. The SH-60Bs will re-equip 351 Filo.
Additional SH-60/CH-60s are required to reach a total of 30 helicopters.

Most weapons and systems are of American origin, some from Germany. British Sea Skau missiles equip the AB212 helicopters.
"Only an idiot would fight a war on two fronts. Only the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Idiots would fight a war on twelve fronts."

— Londo, "Ceremonies of Light and Dark" Babylon-5


#3 tennyson

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Posted 26 May 2003 - 03:25 PM

The Turkish Air Force, like the Navy has seen significantly more modernization funds than the Army and is equivalently better equipped. As of 2002, the Turkish Air Force operated,

164 F-16C and 30 F-16D Fighting Falcons  armed with a variety of modern and not so modern weapons and pentration and navigation aids including two squadrons equiped with LANTRIN  navigation and targeting pods,and AIM-9P Sidewinder AAMs as well as dumb bombs.)
159 F-4E Phantom II fighter-bombers for attack duties(54 have been modernized by Israeli Aircraft Inductries to the latest Israeli standard including AGM-142 Have Nap guided missiles)
30 Northrop F-5A  and 10 F-5Bs for combat training
26 Northrop NF-5A and 15 NF-5B for leadin training for the F-16s
44 RF-4E Phantom II Reconnaissance aircraft
7 Boeing KC-135R tankers
13 Lockheed C-130B/E transports
19 Transall C-160T transports
49 Casa CN-235 transports
2Casa CN-235 Flying Hospitals
1 Beech King Air 200 communications aircraft
3Gulfstream IV  VIP Transports
2Cessna 560 Citation II  VIP Transports
2Cessna 550 Citation II  Navaids Calib./VIP Transports
2 Cessna Citation VII  VIP Transports
1 BN-2T Defender MSSA 139  AEW aircraft on order
39 Bell UH-1H Iroquois helicopters for SAR/ECM/Utility
14 Eurocopter AS.532UL Cougar for SAR and 6 for CombatSAR
40 SIAI-Marchetti SF.260D  Trainers
25Cessna T-41D Mescalero trainers
66 Cessna T-37B/C trainers
68 Northrop T-38A Talon trainers
Future plans are to:
Take delivery of 4 (+2 options) Boeing 737AEW&C aircraft from 2005.
IAI are upgrading 54 F-4E Phantoms to F-4E-2020 Terminator standard. First redelivery was in March 1999.
IAI are to upgrade the avionics and weapons of 48 F-5s for Lead-In Fighter Training.
IAI are to upgrade 7 C-130E with new cockpit displays and avionics.
The Pacer Crag cockpit upgrade is being applied to the KC-135Rs.
10 A400M transports have been ordered.
Replace T-37 with 50 advanced turboprop trainer from 2005 - candidates are KT-1, PC-9, Super Tucano and T-6.
"Only an idiot would fight a war on two fronts. Only the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Idiots would fight a war on twelve fronts."

— Londo, "Ceremonies of Light and Dark" Babylon-5


#4 tennyson

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Posted 26 May 2003 - 03:40 PM

Turkey has a long-standing territorial dispute with Greece that has threatened to explode into open warfare in recent decades and has threatened NATO stability in the recent past. Territorial disputes involving several Aegian Islands have produced conflict in the past and the situation has not been resolved since it began in 1948. Both sides have fortified several of the smaller islands and regular nval patrols and exercises are conducted near the disputed zones.
Turkish forces have occupied the northern part of Cyprus since 1974 and effectively partitioned it. The Grek Cyperiot government controls the emaining two thirds of the island. This invasion occured after Greece tried to impose a military dictatorship on the island after years of civil war between Turks and Greeks on the island.
The Kurds, described as the largest stateless minority group in the world in some circles, are mostly based in Turkey and groups such as the PRK have been involved in insurgency there since at least 1984, resulting in extensive loss of life on both sides. The Tiurks deploy large numbers of troops in the eastern portion of the country, particularly special forces to deal with the problem and they have pursued Kurds into Iraq many times over the years.
There is also a dispute between Turkey and Syria and Iraq over Turkey's plan to divert water from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for its own use, resulting in less water reaching the northern arable lands of Syria and Iraq.
There is still a level of insurgent activity in the Armenian areas.
In terms of international comitments Turkish army personnel are currently serving abroad in NATO peacekeeping operations in Bosnia since 1996, Kosovo since 1999, and with the United Nations in Est Timor(UNTAET) since 1999, Georgia(UNOMIG) since 1996, and they were part of the UNKOM monitoring force along the Iraqi-Kuwait border.
"Only an idiot would fight a war on two fronts. Only the heir to the throne of the Kingdom of Idiots would fight a war on twelve fronts."

— Londo, "Ceremonies of Light and Dark" Babylon-5


#5 Enmar

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Posted 26 May 2003 - 06:05 PM

tennyson, on May 26 2003, 02:31 AM, said:

This lead to a heavily armed, rather immobile, and largely obselete force which Turkey is now making strenous efforts to modernize, even to the point of considering an Israeli program for upgrades on its fleet of M60 tanks along with other modern armoured vehicles. In fact, the militaries of Turkey and Israel have a suprisingly close relationship that has included technology transfer and upgrades to Turkish equipment.
I don't think it should be a surprise, because Israel has two major strategic interests in that:

1. There's a lot of money involved. The actual contracts, possible other contracts with other countries and most important - it keeps the Israeli militaristic industries in movement.
2. Israel has a strong interest in a prospering Muslim democracy and in demonstrating a good relationship with it. We have common threats and common interests in getting the region closer to Europe.


As far as I know a huge contract was signed but there are now problems with it. According to the contract, Israel is supposed to buy things from Turkey at a certain amount of money. It was supposed to be water but the plans changed, so they decided that Turkish people will do some of the work so the money will go partially back to Turkey as salaries. Israeli workers organizations don't like that and claim that the government can't do that, so things are at a dead end for now :blink:

Edited by Enmar, 26 May 2003 - 06:06 PM.

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