All four granite tablets were removed by Monday evening.
Earlier, dozens of protesters locked arms and knelt in prayer to hinder workers who had been ordered to remove the monuments from four schools in the Adams County/Ohio Valley School District about 60 miles east of Cincinnati.
Deputies briefly took at least 30 protesters into custody, but later released them without filing charges.
Lawyers for the district told school officials that they would be in contempt of a court order if they did not instruct the sheriff's deputies to remove the protesters from school property.
"A judge's order is a judge's order," said Francis Manion, the school board's lawyer. "We think (the judge) got it wrong, but it's the school board's duty to remove the monuments."
The protesters temporarily blocked a crane from taking the 800-pound granite tablets from three of the schools, but sheriff's deputies removed the protesters from school property.
U.S. Magistrate Timothy Hogan ruled in Cincinnati last year that it is unconstitutional to display the Ten Commandments on public school grounds. He ordered them removed on Monday, after the school year was finished.
The American Civil Liberties Union sued in 1999 on behalf of a Peebles resident who objected to the display. The school district has appealed Hogan's ruling.
"We have to make the decision in America if there's going to be local control of what we're going to teach our children," said Dave Daubenmire, among those protesting at Peebles High. "Is it going to be the people here in the community, or some judge in a courtroom in Washington? The people of Adams County have spoken."
Separation of church and state, or political corectness gone mad?